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384 Reviews of Books 

individual benefit is the criterion of the fee, the reverse being true of the 
tax. Value of service rather than cost of service is claimed to be the 
true measure of benefit, Dr. Urdahl not sharing the opinion of Wagner 
and others that, whenever a payment exceeds the cost of a service under- 
taken by government, it ceases to be a fee and becomes a tax. He points 
out that a large class of fees is merely payment for privilege, e. g. , license 
fees, where the expense of service is merely trifling. 

A second set of preliminary chapters gives an instructive survey of 
the fee system of England and Europe from medieval times. This opens 
the way to the study of the American system. This study is exhaustive 
and minute, and cannot easily be summarized in a brief review. The 
fee was the most important part of the colonial financial system, inasmuch 
as most offices were self-supporting. This was in harmony with the then- 
accepted "social contract" theory and the actual social conditions. 
"Service and counter-service was the theory on which the entire method 
of remunerating public officials was based" (p. 121). The special 
characteristic of the period, 1787 to 1830, was the great mass and diver- 
sity of fees imposed by the states for regulation. There was no uni- 
formity of system within the states or between them. It was an era of 
special legislation. The main characteristics of the next period, 1830 to 
1865, were the growth in the volume and importance of incorporation 
fees, and the increased use of fees in local finance. Taking these two 
periods together and adding the following years to the present time, the 
chief tendency to be noticed and explained is the passage from the primi- 
tive fee-system of colonial days to the modern salary system. " The 
forces which make this change necessary and desirable, lie in the eco- 
nomic conditions of a rapidly growing and progressive community " (p. 
148). This evolution is interestingly traced in state and federal statutes, 
and is also shown to be reflected in the changes in state constitutions. 

The concluding chapter of the monograph is concerned with an ex- 
amination of the fee-system as a social force. The author shows clearly 
how our ill-conceived fee-system is frequently responsible for the mis- 
carriage of justice and maladministration and corruption in other depart- 
ments of government. Suggestive applications are made to the divorce 
problem, tramp question, etc. The chapter is heartily to be commended 
to social and political reformers, and the whole monograph should be re- 
membered as a worthy addition to our historical literature of administra- 
tion and finance. 

A. C. Miller. 

The Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the 
Year 1898 (Washington, Government Printing Office) is a volume of 
745 pages. A large part of it, perhaps 200 pages, is occupied with the 
report of the proceedings at the New Haven meeting, and with papers 
read upon that occasion. Of those proceedings, an account has already 
been given in this Review, (IV. 409-422), and some of the papers read 
were summarized in that article. The inaugural address by Professor 



Minor Notices 385 

Fisher, President of the Association, on "The Function of the Histor- 
ian as a Judge of Historic Persons," Doctor Friedenwald's description 
of the historical manuscripts in the library of Congress, the discourses of 
Professors Andrews and Osgood on American colonial history, President 
Frank Strong's paper on " A Forgotten Danger to the New England Col- 
onies," and that of Judge Simeon Baldwin on "The Constitutional 
Questions Incident to the Acquisition and Government by the United 
States of Island Territories ' ' are contributions which one is glad to have 
the opportunity to examine in print and at leisure, and which are excep- 
tionally worthy of permanent preservation. Besides these papers, there 
were several which were merely "read by title " at the New Haven meet- 
ing, but are now presented at considerable length in print. Mr. W. F. 
Prince, with much industry and some acuteness, but in a distressingly 
sprightly style, conducts an " Examination of Peter's Blue Laws," of 
which he finds much the greater number to have had an actual existence. 
But it is to be said that among those which never existed are a large pro- 
portion of those which have seemed most ridiculous and have been most 
often quoted ; also that Mr. Prince apparently thinks Peters to be not 
ill vindicated if one proves that the laws which he cited had existence 
and validity in some one of the New England colonies, whereas Peters 
statement is definite, to the effect that these were the laws of New Haven. 
Mr. Albert C. Bates, secretary of the Connecticut Historical Society, 
contributes a scholarly paper on the Connecticut Gore Land Company. 
Mr. George B. Landis relates the history of the Society of Separatists of 
Zoar, Ohio. Dr. J. C. Ballagh, of Johns Hopkins University, presents 
a thoughtful and valuable paper upon those aspects of southern economic 
history which are connected with the subjects of the tariff and of public 
lands. Miss Mary R. W. Stubbert, under the title of "The Cambridge 
School of History ' ' groups two papers, one on the new historical 
tripos at Cambridge, the other on the question of public hostels. 
The latter has nothing to do with history. The former contains in- 
formation, valuable, fresh and interesting, but so imbedded in contorted 
verbiage that it is not more easy to read than so many pages of Brown- 
ing. The volume concludes with the report of the Committee of Seven 
on the Study of History in Schools, which has been printed as a separate 
volume, and is reviewed at an earlier page of the present issue ; and with 
the Third Annual Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission. The 
latter consists chiefly of three appendixes. The first contains twenty - 
eight pages of items respecting historical manuscripts which have come 
to the knowledge of the members of the Commission by means of the 
circulars which they have sent out, or in other ways. The second is a 
calendar of the letters of John C. Calhoun, heretofore printed— a list 
which appears extensive, but which, if deduction be made of the official 
letters of Calhoun as Secretary of War, printed in the folio American 
State Papers, shows that in reality very few of his personal letters have 
ever seen the light, and thus displays abundantly the need of that edition 
of his correspondence which the Commission expects to present in its 



386 Reviews of Books 

Fourth Report. The third of these appendixes, extending to one hun- 
dred pages, presents a guide to the items relating to American history in 
the eighty volumes of the reports of the English Historical Manuscripts 
Commission. This list opens up to the use of students of American his- 
tory a vast mass of material hitherto almost impossible to use. The plan 
of arrangement separates the entries found into two classes, those which 
relate to several colonies or to the history of all the colonies in general, 
and those which relate distinctively to one colony. Under these heads 
the items are arranged in chronological order. An alphabetical index 
of the names of persons is appended. 

Syria and Egypt from the Tell el Amarna Letters. By W. M. 
Flinders Petrie. (Scribners, 1898, pp. 187.) No discovery of 
modern times has contributed more to our knowledge of ancient life and 
history than the remarkable series of official documents rescued from the 
ruins of the capital of Amenhotep IV. and known as the Tell el Amarna 
tablets. Unfortunately no thoroughly satisfactory translation of them 
into English has yet been made. 

Professor Petrie, availing himself of the excellent German translation 
of Winckler, has performed a valuable service in classifying the letters 
which were interchanged between the Egyptian kings Amenhotep HI. 
and Amenhotep IV. and their governors and vassal princes in Syria, and 
in giving brief epitomes of the important facts contained in each. To 
these he has added brief introductions dealing with critical questions of 
history, chronology and geography. The summaries and introduction 
are very useful, but they do not of course supply the place of a translation. 

The original contribution of the book consists of the identification of 
many places mentioned in the inscriptions. In this field Dr. Petrie is 
most at home. All references to a given town are carefully collated 
and the usual mutations between the transcription of cuneiform and the 
modern Arabic forms considered. The descriptive nature of many of 
the names also furnishes valuable suggestions. Of the one hundred and 
fifty places referred to- in the letters about one hundred can be located 
with more or less certainty. The work of identification, however, has 
not yet by any means been pushed to its furthest limits. 

Although well provided with indexes, the value of the book for gen- 
eral students, for whom it is primarily adapted, is greatly impaired by 
the lack of a map indicating the identifications and enabling the reader 
to trace the geographical background of the events recorded. 

C. F. K. 

In the third Abteilung of Vol. VIII. of his Konige der Germanen 
(Leipzig, Breitkopf und Hartel, pp. 296) Dr. Felix Dahn begins his 
consideration of the Frankish constitution under the Carolingians proper, 
treating in full detail, however, only those points in which changes occur 
in the institutions of Merovingian times. Three subjects are dealt with : 
the royal legislation, the public offices and the military system. The 
most important and interesting sections are those devoted to the Graf, 



Minor Notices 387 

to the missi, to the chancery, and to Charlemagne's attempts to lessen 
the burden of military service. Dahn bestows the highest praise on the 
institution of the missi, but, true to his conception of Charlemagne's 
character already referred to, he refuses to see in it an evidence of his 
genius, but only of the goodness of his heart, his desire for his people's 
welfare, and his determination to fulfill his religious duties. 

Magna Charta and Other Great Charters of England, with an his- 
torical treatise and copious explanatory notes (Philadelphia, William J. 
Campbell, 1900) is the promising title of a work by Boyd C. Barring- 
ton, Esq., LL.B., of the Philadelphia Bar. The book contains a pref- 
ace, an historical review of the " causes culminating in the granting of 
the Great Charter," a collection of seventeen charters translated, from 
the laws of Edward the Confessor to the confirmations of Edward I. and 
the clergy, explanatory notes to Magna Charta, and an index. Mr. 
Barrington, believing that " to the average reader the facts relating to 
the Magna Charta, as well as the Magna Charta itself, are like a sealed 
book, absolutely unknown, " endeavors to supply the lacking information. 
No more worthless book was ever published. The historical treatise 
reads like a sophomoric essay and is full of inaccuracies, ridiculous state- 
ments, and bad grammar, while the notes to Magna Charta are simply 
antiquarian rubbish. The work is a veritable historical curiosity, con- 
taining, one may almost say, the imprint of the twentieth century on its 
title-page (1900 instead of 1899) and the historical ideas and scholarship 
of the eighteenth in its text. Where has Mr. Barrington buried himself 
for the past quarter of a century, that for him Stubbs, Freeman, Norgate, 
Bigelow, Brunner, Liebermann, Bemont, Round, Pollock, and Maitland, 
not to mention Digby, Taswell-Langmead, and Medley, have done their 
work in vain ? 

A footnote to the preface of Paysans et Ouvriers depuis Sept Cents 
Ans, by the Vicomte G. d'Avenel (Paris, Armand Colin, pp. xvi, 391) 
informs us that it is an "abrege " of Volumes III. and IV. of his monu- 
mental Histoire Economique. The ordinary reader and the ordinary 
librarian would probably not gather from this information that in reality 
it is a verbatim reprint of the whole of the text of that portion of the 
Vicomte d'Avenel's work, without either the references to authorities or 
the statistical tables which accompany it in its original form. The Histoire 
Economique is so extensive an undertaking, and so characteristic an ex- 
ample both of the strength and of the weakness of the older school of 
French political economists, that it calls for careful examination ; and 
we hope at no distant date to place before our readers something like a 
detailed examination of its contents. Until then it will be well to post- 
pone any review of the conclusions, which are here reproduced without 
any of the evidence supposed to support them. It may be sufficient for 
the present to warn the reader into whose hands Paysans et Ouvriers may 
chance to fall, that the evidence is open to a good deal of criticism, and 
that it is exceedingly inadequate on many of the topics concerning which 



388 Reviews of Books 

M. d'Avenel is most positive. For instance, M. d'Avenel is of opinion 
that the craft -gilds of the Middle Ages exercised absolutely no influence 
on the rate of wages (p. 85), and he even puts this to the front in his 
preface as one of the main results of his investigations (p. x). But the 
lists of wages given in Vol. III. of the Histoire contain, under the head 
" Tailleurs, Tisserands et Ouvriers du Vetement," (and how important 
these trades were we need not stop to explain), not one single entry 
before 1364, and only sixteen between 1364 and 1498. These sixteen 
belong to four or five different crafts, in eight different places, and range 
all the way from ten centimes to 4 fr. 43 per day. Figures like these are 
evidently incapable of supporting any general conclusion. Or take some 
other examples. For so important a craft as that of the cordonniers we 
are furnished with but two figures before 1500, and these are for 1380 
and 1498 ; for butchers also with two figures, for 1358 and 1384. Of 
the last two one comes from Orleans and is given as 18 centimes, and the 
other from Hainault and is given as 83 centimes. These instances will 
perhaps suffice. They will at any rate prevent the reader of the present 
volume from supposing that the Vicomte d'Avenel when he speaks most 
positively is always drawing from an inexhaustible storehouse of informa- 
tion. 

There are many published lives of Prince Henry the Navigator, all 
of them about equally unsatisfactory to the reader of biographies. The 
reason for this has at last been made plain — for the first time to readers 
not familiar with the sources of Portuguese history — through the appear- 
ance of an English version of Azurara's Chronicle of the Discovery and 
Conquest of Guinea, edited by Mr. C. Raymond Beazley, who had trans- 
lated it with the assistance of his Oxford colleague, Mr. Edgar Prestage. 
An examination of Mr. Beazley' s introduction and of his notes to the 
text shows very clearly how completely the biographers of Prince Henry 
have been compelled to rely upon the data and the point of view of this 
contemporary official chronicler. A few scattered letters, of little more 
than personal interest, the usual array of baptismal and burial records, 
of land and titular grants, and other flotsam and jetsam familiar to every 
one who has waded into the sea of historical " sources of information," 
comprise nearly all that the efforts of successive students of the Chron- 
icle, among whom Mr. Beazley ranks as one of the most earnest, have 
succeeded in bringing to light to illuminate and check the statements 
made by Azurara in regard to his hero. Luckily, this evidence is appar- 
ently sufficient to show that Gomes Eannes de Azurara was an intelligent 
and fair-minded observer and recorder, and his narrative, so far as the 
absence of conflicting data permits a judgment, gives a very fair and 
comprehensive account of the events which brought the western coast of 
Northern Africa within the range of the well-known. 

G. P. W. 

Many teachers of Modern European history find themselves unable 
to rely with satisfaction upon a single text -book, or even upon a group 



Minor Notices 389 

of manuals. They will find themselves signally aided by the excellent 
Syllabus of a Course of Eighty-Seven Lectures on Modern European His- 
tory (1600-1890) by Professor H. Morse Stephens, of Cornell Univer- 
sity (Macmillan Co., pp. xviii, 319). The volume is a revised and en- 
larged edition of a syllabus used at Cornell University during the last five 
years, but now for the first time published in book form. The syllabus 
contains skeletons of lectures on eighty-seven successive topics within the 
field, presenting the facts in a compact summary, with the dates and 
the proper names to be mentioned. Each such skeleton is followed by a 
bibliography of considerable extent, embracing both primary and sec- 
ondary authorities and books, written in either English, French or Ger- 
man. A brief general bibliography is given at the beginning of the 
book, while appendixes at the end contain lists of the monarchs and chief 
ministers of the European powers during the period covered, together 
with a few genealogical tables. 

A syllabus cannot be reviewed in the same manner as other books, 
and indeed can hardly be justly estimated until one has tried it in actual 
use with classes. Beforehand, this seems excellent. The bibliographies, 
exceptionally fresh and modern, will be particularly valued. The fault 
which the present reviewer conceives to be the chief one is of a sort 
which it surprises one to find in a book by Professor Morse Stephens ; 
namely, its neglect of the French Revolution. That revolution, from 
the meeting of the States General to the Ninth Thermidor, is disposed of 
in two lectures out of the eighty-seven, a space not greater than that 
given to the contemporary revolutions of Belgium and Poland. The 
reason is that Professor Morse Stephens gives special advanced courses on 
the period of the French Revolution at Cornell University. This how- 
ever is not a sufficient reason for such brevity when the book is placed 
upon the general market and offered to the use of teachers who are con- 
ducting general courses in modern European history, preserving the cus- 
tomary proportions. Something the same may be said of the Napoleonic 
period. 

Die PoliHk des Protectors Oliver Cromwell in der Auffassung und 
Thatigkeit seines Ministers des Staatssecretars John Thurloe, von Dr. 
Sigismund Freiherrn von Bischoffshausen. Im Anhang, die Briefe John 
Thurloes an Bulstrode Whitelock und sein Bericht iiber die Cromwell' - 
sche Politik fiir Edward Hyde. (Innsbruck, Wagner, pp. xv, 224.) 
This is a concise history of the two Protectorates, based chiefly upon 
Thurloe's correspondence and utterances, and told in such a manner as 
to make Thurloe the leading figure in the narrative. The selection of 
material and manner of presentation are abnormal, and can only be justi- 
fied, if at all, with reference to the author's purpose, which is to make 
clear Thurloe's part in the internal and external affairs of the Protectorate. 
This is necessary, he thinks, to a proper understanding of Cromwell's 
career and character. He is of the opinion that Thurloe's influence ex- 
tended beyond the comparatively minor matters of administration and 



390 Reviews of Books 

the conduct of negotiations, to broader questions of state policy. If this 
were true, this plan of presentation might be a suitable one. But he is 
unable to show that Thurloe played so important a role. He admits as 
much with regard to foreign affairs, though one would expect Thurloe's 
influence to appear here if anywhere, and in the absence of evidence to 
support this view, one may be pardoned for questioning whether Thurloe, 
with all his intelligence and tact, was just the sort of man to exercise a 
decisive influence over so masterful and domineering a character as- 
Cromwell. 

This undue prominence given to Thurloe and to his correspondence 
distorts the perspective of the book and leads to an occasional neglect of 
other important sources of information. It seems a little odd, to mention 
a minor point, that a book written in German should fail to mention 
Cromwell's attempt to secure a foothold in northern Germany, while 
similar efforts of his in Flanders are given due prominence. It is true 
the attempt to secure Bremen finds scarcely an echo in Thurloe's 
writings, while the acquisition of the Flemish cities is given great promi- 
nence there ; but a modern writer should hardly follow the same plan. 
As an instance of omission, Nieupoort's dispatches may be mentioned, 
which throw much light upon Cromwell's foreign policy, and also upon 
Thurloe's management of negotiations. Yet, notwithstanding these de- 
fects, the book offers a sketch of the period which is by no means unac- 
ceptable. It is the fruit of much conscientious labor, and is so crowded 
with facts as to make heavy reading. 

The last eighty-four pages are devoted to documents, for the most 
part hitherto unpublished. Twenty-three letters of Thurloe to White- 
lock in Sweden cover the period from December 2, 1653, to May 16, 
1654. Three versions of Thurloe's very important account of foreign 
affairs under the Protectorate, furnished by him to the ministry of the 
Restoration, are arranged in parallel columns for purposes of comparison, 
and an attempt is made to determine their relations to each other. This 
had never been done before, and the material was difficult of access. 
The frontispiece is an interesting reproduction of Dobson's portrait of 
Thurloe in the National Portrait Gallery. 

Guernsey Jones. 

History of the Russian Fleet during the Reign of Peter the Great. By 
a Contemporary Englishman (1724). Edited by Vice- Admiral Cyprian 
A. G. Bridge, K.C.B. (London, The Navy Records Society, pp. xxiv, 
161). This work is not so comprehensive as its title suggests, for, 
although it gives some account of Peter's earliest attempts to create a 
naval force in the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea, it is almost wholly a 
history of the Baltic fleet, written up quite in log-book fashion. The 
editor conjectures that it was intended for publication upon the author' s- 
return to England. In some manner it found its way back to Russia, 
where it was translated and published two years ago by Count Poutiatine. 

The author is so careful to avoid all reference to himself that it is 



Minor Notices 391 

impossible to say more of him than that he was an officer in the service 
of the Tsar. His observations indicate close acquaintance for man)' 
years with every phase of the development of the Baltic fleet, and after 
reading his pages one feels the very atmosphere of the creative process, 
and is sure that he knows at least this side of Peter's life in a more real 
way than is possible even through the vivid, often lurid pictures sketched 
by Waliszewski. It has been the fashion of late to point out that Peter 
was hardly more than a continuator in most of the reforms which he 
undertook. Even in shipbuilding his father had set him the example. 
But the construction of the Baltic fleet, and, through it, the acquirement 
of sea-power in those waters was, as Vice-Admiral Bridge remarks, the 
"one reform or innovation in which Peter the Great's originality of 
conception is indisputable." 

It is evident from the narrative that the new fleet helped in the win- 
ning of. the final victory over the Swedes, although at all times powerless 
to cope with a well-handled fighting force. Its deficiencies were those 
of a complicated mechanism, improvised hurriedly, and placed in the 
hands of inexperienced men, with an insufficient number of trained 
leaders. In his later pages the author points out these deficiencies un- 
sparingly, for he becomes more frankly critical as the term of his service 
draws to a close. They were bad seamanship, particularly in heavy 
weather ; such clumsy steering that the lower portholes had to be kept 
shut lest the water rush in ; panic terror at the approach of the enemy ; 
the reckless handling of powder charges, and wild firing, so that the 
Swedes were in less danger of being hit than were the Russian ships 
themselves of being blown up. In seeking the causes he intimates that 
the principal one is ill-usage of foreigners, by reason of which ' ' none 
go there unless incapacitated to live in other countries." It is curious to 
note among the foreigners who did serve the name of a New Englander, 
George Paddon, Rear-Admiral of the White. 

Vice-Admiral Bridge has done his work with a scholarly thorough- 
ness, and has added several appendices, on the Swedish navy of the 
period and other illustrative matters. 

H. E. B. 

Bonaparte et les lies loniennes ; Un Episode des Conqufites de la Re- 
publique et du Premier Empire (1797-1816). Par E. Rodocanachi. 
(Paris, Felix Alcan, pp. xi, 316.) The Greek author of this work, after 
writing much on medieval Italian history, has taken up an obscure but 
fascinating episode in the long history of his own land. In a sense this, 
too, is a chapter of Italian history ; for the seven islands had been an 
appanage of Venice for six hundred years, when Napoleon laid covetous 
eyes upon them and declared in 1797 that "Corfu, Zante and Cephalonia 
concerned him more than the whole of Italy. ' ' To possess them (he 
thought) was to hold the key of the Adriatic, to checkmate England at 
Malta, and ultimately to destroy her by the occupation of Egypt. How 
the isles were snatched from the palsied hands of Venice ; how they 
vol. v. — 26 



392 Reviews of Books 

were held squirming in the uncertain hands of France — now promised 
all the delights of democracy, now realizing a well-nigh untempered des- 
potism ; and how, after an heroic resistance through a five months' siege, 
Donzelot and his gallant garrison at last yielded to English arms and 
"The United States of the Ionian Islands" arose under English protec- 
tion — all this Rodocanachi rehearses in a most vivid and dramatic way. 
We cannot at the moment (at Athens, September 30, 1 899) control his 
authorities, but his array of sources appears ample and he appends some 
fifty pages of original documents, including the diplomatic correspond- 
ence of Capo d'Istria, afterwards President of the new Greek state. At 
all events, he has given us a notable sketch of the modern Greek mind 
in its rebound from Venetian rule, as it began to dream again of Platonic 
republics — in the air ; and one who turns the story over, as the present 
writer has just done, on the parapets of the old fort at Corfu which Don- 
zelot stoutly held for Napoleon even after Napoleon had fallen, will be 
grateful for the strong light now thrown upon an episode so obscure. 
No student of modern Greek history can afford to leave the book unread. 

J. Irving Manatt. 

Dispatches and Letters Relating to the Blockade of Brest, 1803-1805, 
edited by John Leyland. Vol. I. (London, The Navy Records Society, 
pp. lxvi, 369). This volume, the material of which is chiefly from public 
sources, but in part is drawn from the papers of Admiral William Corn- 
wallis, who commanded before Brest, covers a wider field than its title 
indicates. The book treats not only of the blockade of Brest, but also 
of all kindred operations throughout the Bay of Biscay ; in fact it seeks 
to illustrate the entire blockade of France from the Atlantic side as 
against the similar work done by Nelson in the Mediterranean. 

But while the book is thus general in its scope, its contents are not 
correspondingly interesting. The editor has attempted to overcome this 
defect in his material by devoting proportionately less space to routine 
operations in the later portion of the volume ; still it is a question 
whether he has succeeded in producing a work of deep interest. This 
does not imply censure. The French made no effort to break up the 
blockade, which accordingly sank into a routine offering little if any 
opportunity to raise an account of it above the monotonous. Yet even 
here Mr. Leyland has emphasized a point of interest : that Nelson's idea 
of a blockade — Cornwallis followed much the same system at Brest — 
was not to imprison the enemy, but rather to tempt him to a struggle in 
the open, above all not to allow him to escape unnoticed. And in other 
respects the book is not without living touches. There is something im- 
pressive in the simple orders which reopened a struggle reaching ten 
years into the past and about to extend twelve into the future ; the no- 
tices of the press-gang at the opening of the volume recall a practice 
which happily has passed away with the necessity that forced it into be- 
ing ; and the occurrences reported in the ports of Spain are interesting 
in themselves and illustrate the peculiar position of this power, which 



Minor Notices 393 

was as neutral in the contest as her weakness would permit ; she opened 
her ports to both belligerents, but in practice Napoleon's military pre- 
dominance secured unequally favorable treatment for French vessels in 
her harbors. 

Mr. Leyland has added an interesting group of a dozen or more 
letters, obtained in the Paris archives, from Napoleon and his Min- 
ister of Marine Decres and Caffarelli the naval prefect at Brest. They 
reveal such a state of ill preparation in the French ports that Napoleon's 
project of invading England seems to have been somewhat impracticable 
even before Trafalgar. This volume reaches to July, 1804, and another 
is to follow. 

H. M. Bowman. 

Letters and Papers of Admiral of the Fleet Sir Thomas By am Martin, 
edited by Sir Richard Vesey Hamilton, G.C.B., Admiral. Vol. II. 
(London, Navy Records Society, pp. 416). This volume — the second 
of three, of which the first and third are as yet unpublished — covers Admiral 
Martin's work in the Baltic in 1808, 1809, and 1812, and his mission to 
Wellington in Spain in 1813. Admiral Saumarez was chief in command 
on the Baltic station at the time, but Martin did much independent work 
especially in protecting British commerce along the coast of Prussia 
northward toward the Gulf of Finland, and in this selection from his pa- 
pers one can follow the actual workings of the system whereby Great 
Britain nullified the Berlin Decree in practice and preserved her com- 
merce even in Europe despite Napoleon's opposition. 

Martin's operations were suspended annually on the approach of 
winter, hence each season forms a unit, and his correspondence falls 
naturally into a division according to the years. The letters of 1808 are 
of little interest save as to Martin's capture of the Sevelod (Russian) and 
Saumarez's subsequent failure to attack the Russian fleet in Port Baltic — a 
much discussed question which here is solved by the answer that Saumarez 
refrained from attack by the advice of his subordinates best acquainted 
with the situation, Martin and Hood. In 1809 the German situation 
was complicated by the Franco-Austrian campaign, and the heightened 
interest is reflected in this correspondence : the Austrians overran the 
Grand Duchy of Warsaw to Thorn, and for a time Martin hoped they 
would enter Prussia and join him in an attack upon Danzig. But the 
chief interest of this volume centres in the year 1812, when the admiral, 
after two years of comparative inactivity as captain of the royal yacht, 
returned to the Baltic at the time when Napoleon's invasion of Russia 
drew the attention of Europe to this quarter. Martin's work was now to 
support Russia : he shared in the direct defence of Riga and also created 
a diversion in favor of this city by a feint of landing before Danzig. A 
point of importance is that Martin's station in this year at Riga was on 
the line of communication between England and the seat of war, and his 
correspondence reports the course of the contest so far at least as Russia 
allowed it to become known. 



394 Reviews of Books 

The letters of 1813 bring us into contact with Wellington's work in 
Spain, but not in a connection of the highest interest. Wellington 
had complained of insufficient naval support in the Bay of Biscay, and 
Martin, at the time second in command at Plymouth, was sent to inves- 
tigate. He effected an arrangement without difficulty. 

H. M. Bowman. 

A Political History of Europe since 1814, by Charles Seignobos,. 
of the University of Paris. Translation edited by S. M. Macvane, Pro- 
fessor of History in Harvard University. ( New York, Henry Holt and 
Co., pp. xxi, 881.) Professor Macvane says in his preface : " In a few 
points this is not a simple translation. Here and there a phrase or even a 
whole passage has been omitted — sometimes because the subject-matter 
seemed of little importance to students in this country, sometimes be- 
cause it could not have been intelligible to ordinary readers, without 
explanatory notes for which space could not be easily afforded. In the 
chapters on England I have taken somewhat larger liberties. In his- 
treatment of recent English history Professor Seignobos seems to me to 
have been less successful than in the rest of his work. In trying to 
remedy imperfections I have not thought it expedient to distract the 
reader's attention with marks indicating my departure from the original." 

Turning to the chapters on England we find that much the larger 
part of them has been left intact ; the changes are only occasional. The 
following are some of the most important variations from the original : 
Some two pages (13-14) have been added upon the struggle of George 
III. against Parliament, the kindred matter of the original having been 
discarded. This is an improvement. The passage on the poor-relief 
system (pp. 44-46), has been in large measure rewritten, but the new 
matter is at one or two points less definite than the original. On 
page 55 a paragraph has been added making clearer the Irish situation 
about 1832. There are several changes in the section on trade-union 
legislation, the most important being the addition of a paragraph on the 
legislation concerning strikes. A somewhat fuller statement is given 
(p. 80) of the rule of 1881-82 for closing debate, and a paragraph has 
been added on Gladstone's second Irish Land Act (1881). There are 
several changes in the account of the electoral reform of 1884-85, with 
the result, as a rule, of greater definiteness and clearness. The matter 
upon Irish affairs from the middle of page 87 to the middle of page 90 
is new. 

The variations from the original in the other parts of the work are 
chiefly in the way of omissions — phrases, sentences, whole paragraphs, — 
but the translator has occasionally added a foot-note of value. 

Granting the translator the right to alter the author's thought or 
even substitute his own, little fault can be found with the translation. 
There is seldom left the flavor of a French idiom. Professor Macvane 
has made a number of additions to the bibliography, chiefly titles of 
books in English. He has also added a full index. 

E. C. B. 



Minor Notices 395 

The Story of the People of England in the Nineteenth Century, by- 
Justin McCarthy, Part II. ["Story of the Nations."] (New York, 
Putnams, pp. vii, 261). Although Part I. of this work brought the story 
in some particulars to 1835, Part II. begins with 1832. This second 
volume carries forward the history of reforms in Mr. McCarthy's admirable 
and interesting manner, fulfilling in most respects the expectations 
created by the former. A chapter entitled " The Convict Ship " relates 
the history of the penal system and its reform, and discusses the barbarous 
methods of dealing with political prisoners. The various Irish questions 
are handled with frankness and comparative fullness. The history of the 
Great Reform having been told at some length in the first volume, the 
later Parliamentary reforms are dealt with more briefly. 

The chapters of the book preserve, on the whole, chronological se- 
quence, but they often have a wide range as regards both time and mat- 
ter. The chapter on "The Foundation of the Canadian Dominion" 
includes also an account of the efforts of the Australian colonies towards 
federation. A few of the. chapters are largely collections of odds and 
ends, personal and political. Such a one is that entitled, " The Waning 
Century. ' ' That bearing the title, ' ' The Close of a Great Career, ' ' may 
be misleading, since it is made up of a number of obituaries and some 
paragraphs on political topics, and only closes with a brief account of Mr. 
Gladstone's last days. These obituaries, which usually contain neat 
characterizations, elsewhere often interrupt the course of the narrative. 

There is an interesting chapter on " Steam, Telegraph and Postage." 
The chapter on "Literature, Art and Science " is too brief (six pages) 
to be satisfying ; but the scattered paragraphs relating to these subjects 
which are printed elsewhere go a good way towards making up for this 
deficiency. There is otherwise some lack of proportion in the book, 
since nearly three times as much space is given to the first twenty-five 
years of the period as to the last forty. 

As the volume covers practically the same period as the author's 
History of Our Own Times, a comparison of the smaller with the larger 
work naturally suggests itself. That Mr. McCarthy has had his former 
work before him while writing, would seem to be evident from the simi- 
larity of many passages, but that he has really written this book anew, 
appropriating very little of the other in direct form, is also evident. 

Whatever the criticisms that may be made upon the book, if one 
wishes to catch the spirit of nineteenth-century England and keep it, he 
should read these volumes. There are forty-six excellent illustrations, 
chiefly portraits. 

Edmund C. Burnett. 

Dr. W. Evans Darby, secretary of the Peace Society of London, has 
brought out in a new and enlarged edition, published by the Society, a 
volume entitled International Tribunals, a Collection of the various 
Schemes which have been propounded and of Instances since 1815 (pp. 
304). The author gives outlines or texts (in most cases, the latter) of 



396 Reviews of Books 

the arrangements of the Amphictyonic Council, of the Grand Dessein of 
Henry IV., of the schemes of William Penn, Abbe de St. Pierre, Ben- 
tham, Kant, Leone Levi, the Institute of International Law, Professor 
Corsi, etc. , and the chief arbitration-treaties and conventions of the last 
twenty years. Upon this useful collection of texts ensues a list of one 
hundred and fifty-eight instances in which arbitration or mediation has 
been successfully tried during the period since 1813. An addendum of 
seventy-nine pages, also published this year, gives, beside some passages 
from Kant and other publicists, the text of the Treaty of Washington, 
187 1, and of the convention drawn up by the Peace Conference held at 
the Hague during the last summer. 

In his entertaining series of historical gossip M. Imbert de Saint- 
Amand has reached the Italian war of 1859, which he describes in a vol- 
ume called France and Italy (Scribner). He writes this time not merely 
to tell an interesting story, but to remind his countrymen of days of vic- 
tory and glory ; for Frenchmen, he says, have fallen into the habit of re- 
membering Sedan and Metz, and of forgetting the splendid achievements 
of Magenta and Solferino. We need not expect, therefore, that a work 
thus conceived will give a complete or an impartial statement. In 1859 
the Second Empire was already hollow ; but M. de Saint-Amand paints 
only the glittering surface as it then appeared. The unpreparedness of the 
French War Department, the astonishing blunders of the planners of the 
campaign, the incompetence (with a few exceptions) of the officers, are 
hardly hinted at. Napoleon III. appears as a great man in every respect. 
But the real entertainment of this book comes from its vivid descriptions 
of persons and events, some compiled, others given in extracts from con- 
temporary letters or memoirs. If the author would cite his authorities 
exactly, serious historical students might find in him more than mere 
amusement. The volume has several portraits : that of Cavour is from 
an inferior original. 

Glimpses of Modern German Culture, by Kuno Francke, Professor 
at Harvard University (New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1898, pp. 
233). True to its title this work affords many clear glimpses of the 
trend of thought and civilization in recent and contemporary German 
history. In fourteen sketches, already published in different periodicals, 
Professor Franoke, having the peculiar advantage of native acquaintance 
and the perspective his American standpoint allows, treats concisely 
fourteen subjects of social, literary and historical interest. 

In his introduction the author speaks plainly of the unrest and the 
perplexing questions among the Germans at the present time — of the still 
evident strife between church and state, the conflict between monarchy 
and democracy, the "struggle between industrial bondage and industrial 
freedom." He does not wholly deplore this friction for he sees therein 
the stimulus for new life in art and literature. 

Especially instructive is the discussion of the Socialist situation, 
which shows that the party of that name is in no sense represented by a 



Minor Notices 397 

mob, but is gradually combining the liberal elements of the country. 
Many socialist organizations are pledged to the spread of culture and re- 
finement. Moreover the party as a whole, in spite of government inter- 
ference and persecution, already has great strength in numbers and " if 
unchecked by international conflicts or other complications" will be 
found to have quietly but steadily evolved a resistless force " which will 
control the majority of the Reichstag. ' ' 

Without lengthy consideration in any case the sections upon living 
authors give a distinct idea of the " literary revival which has been so 
brilliantly initiated by the dramatic achievements of Sudermann and his 
associates. ' ' Here as in his Social Forces in German Literature, Profes- 
sor Francke looks ' ' at the substance rather than the form of literature ' ' 
which he considers " chiefly as an expression of national culture." The 
Sunken Bell of Hauptmann proves that not merely transient themes are 
being treated but themes that lie near the heart of all mankind. Signifi- 
cant too as factors in this new awakening are such productions as the 
poems of Johanna Ambrosius, the criticisms of Hermann Grimm, the 
stories of Seidel and Rosegger, Wildenbruch's King Henry, Hauptmann's 
Florian Geyer, Max Halbe's Mother Earth and Sudermann's John the 
Baptist, whose chief character Professor Francke believes worthy of 
Schiller's genius. Not unlike the spirit of Hauptmann is that which 
actuates the artist Arnold Bocklin. His Prometheus ("worthy of 
Aeschylus ' ' ) and other bold conceptions indicate the " creative vitality ' ' 
which raises him above the copyist and " makes him a representative of 
modern life. ' ' Bismarck is presented as the very incarnation of German 
character, socially, intellectually, religiously : the cool reasoner, the un- 
biassed thinker, one of the few men who "tower in splendid solitude 
above the waste of the ages. ' ' 

In this exceedingly useful book the information is compactly given, 
the style is pleasing. Anyone desirous of knowing the Germany of 
to-day, its people or its literature is sure to read with interest and find 
incentive for further investigation. 

Source-Book of American History. Edited for Schools and Readers, 
by Albert Bushnell Hart, Ph.D., Professor of History in Harvard Uni- 
versity. With practical Introductions. (New York, Macmillan, pp. 
xlvi, 408.) 

The purpose of this book is to make illustrative material in American 
history accessible to secondary schools. Such a book, to supplement the 
work of the text, has long been a desideratum, and Professor Hart has 
performed a valuable service in making it. The general plan of the book 
is the same as that of the editor's American History Told by Contempora- 
ries. It has elaborate introductions giving many helpful suggestions to 
teachers on the use of sources ; these are written by the editor, by Mr. 
Ray Greene Huling, headmaster of the Cambridge English High School, 
and by Professor Emma M. Ridley, of the Iowa State Normal School. 
There are also long lists of carefully selected subjects for topical study 



398 Reviews of Books 

from sources, brief bibliographies, and on each page marginal explanatory 
notes. 

The book contains one hundred and forty-five selections, of which 
seventy-five relate to the period since the organization of the national 
government. Very few of these are documents. They are mostly letters, 
extracts from books, pamphlets and periodicals, extending from the time 
of Columbus to the war with Spain, and reproduced in the typography 
and spelling of the original editions. They are well-chosen and make a 
most useful and interesting book, which if rightly used by the teacher 
will greatly assist the student in vitalizing the past and in stimulating his 
interest in it. 

There are few errors. The values given by the editor for 20 pounds 
of silver and 80 pounds of gold in England in 1578-1579 may be ques- 
tioned. These are stated as $300 and $40,000 respectively (p. 10). 
Probably the exact ratio between the two metals for this year cannot be 
determined. The average ratio between 1561 and 1580 is given by W. 
A. Shaw {History of the Currency, p. 68) as 11.5. Relative to "An 
act for preventing Negroes Insurrections" in Virginia, the statement is 
made that "there were many insurrections in colonial times, especially the 
so-called 'New York slave plot' of 1741 " (p. 95). We read of many 
plots — but it is extremely doubtful whether any considerable number of 
them had any real existence ; and as to insurrection, as Professor Alex- 
ander Johnston has said, " it was regularly individual, and most of it was 
only revolt by legal construction. ' ' The evidence of the New York plot 
is of the flimsiest sort. 

John William Perrin. 

Topical Studies in American History, by John G. Allen (New 
York, Macmillan, pp. xxxvi, 93). This little book is the second 
edition of a work published by Mr. Allen in 1885. It is, as the 
name implies, an outline of American history, arranged by topics, rather 
than in strictly chronological order. An introduction gives suggestions 
as to methods of teaching, and this is followed by ten pages of " Memory 
Lessons, ' ' comprising an outline of American history from the early ex- 
plorers to the present time, which is to be committed to memory. This 
includes a list of ' ' such memory gems for declamation ... as 
shall promote in the hearts of American youths a deep and abiding love 
for their country." The " General Topical Outline " of the history of 
the United States covers sixty-eight pages, and includes a synopsis of the 
government under the heads, "Legislature," "Executive," "Post 
Office" and "Judiciary." A "Chronological Conspectus" follows. 
This is a list of dates in chronological order, from the discovery of Ice- 
land to the Peace Congress at the Hague. Marginal references to sec- 
ondary authorities and to works of fiction are given with some fulness. 
A few collections of source-material are quoted, but so well-known a book 
as MacDonald's Select Documents is not mentioned among these. 



Minor Notices 399 

Dr. John P. Peters and Mr. W. P. Peters have privately printed in 
a volume of 219 pages, the Diary of David McClure, Doctor of Divinity, 
1 748-1820. Dr. McClure spent his boyhood in Boston, was gradu- 
ated at Yale College in 1769, was minister at North Hampton, N. H., 
from 1776 to 1785, and from 1785 to 1809 at East Windsor, Conn. 
But the diary relates mostly to the years 1765-1775. Before going to 
college the diarist had devoted himself to the work of a missionary among 
the Indians, and had studied with Dr. Wheelock at Lebanon and visited 
the Oneidas. After graduation he was for a few years head of Moor's 
Charity School and tutor in Dartmouth College, of whose early days he 
gives an interesting picture. In June 1772 he set out, under the auspices 
of a Scottish missionary society, to labor among the Indians in the re- 
gions of the Muskingum. At that time there was no church west of the 
Alleghanies. The most valuable part of the volume consists of the por- 
tion which relates to this journey — 4268 miles in all, the diarist com- 
putes. He gives many interesting glimpses of frontier life in Western 
Pennsylvania and the Ohio country. After a year, the state of the 
Delaware Indians being such as to preclude the hope of success, Mr. 
McClure returned to New England. The narrative of the next few years 
contains several entertaining pages. Mr. McClure kept at Portsmouth, 
during the winter of 17 73-1 7 74, a school for girls; " this is, I believe," 
he says, " the only female school (supported by the town) in New Eng- 
land." He visited Governor Hutchinson on errands of Dartmouth Col- 
lege. Preaching at Portsmouth and at Boston, he was at the latter place 
at the time of the battle of Lexington. " The 15th. I went to a guard 
house of the British, to see Mr. Piety, the Conductor of the Artillery, 
with whom I had been acquainted at Fort Pitt. I found them ingaged 
in filling cartages for Cannon, from a tub of powder. Mr. Piety arose 
and walked with me into the Street. He informed me that they 
had orders to march into the country in 4 days, and were much engaged 
in preparing. . . I mentioned to sundry people in Boston my informa- 
tion, without exposing the officer's name. But people were unwilling to 
realize that war was at the door. One and another said, it was one of 
Gage's blustering maneuvres, and that he durst not send his soldiers out. " 
On the 20th, Mr. McClure visited the line of retreat of the British, and 
saw some of the killed and wounded. 

The volume is admirably annotated by Professor Franklin B. Dexter 
of Yale College. 

Pictures of Rhode Island in the Past, 1642-1833, by Travellers and 
Others, by Gertrude Selwyn Kimball (Providence, The Preston and 
Rounds Co., pp. 176). This volume consists chiefly of extracts out of 
old books, from Thomas Lechford's Plain Dealing down to Thomas 
Hamilton's Men and Manners, in which there are descriptions of Rhode 
Island, or of Providence, or of Newport, as they appeared in former 
times. Miss Kimball has collected more than sixty such notices, all well 
worth printing, and surprisingly varied in character. She shows Rhode 



400 Reviews of Books 

Island as it appeared to natives and strangers, Frenchmen, Englishmen, 
Scotchmen, Yankees and Southerners, Puritans and Quakers, priests and 
soldiers, royal officials and private travellers. To name but a few, we 
have here the impressions of observers as various and as competent as 
Lord Bellomont, Madam Sarah Knight, Dean Berkeley, Chief-Justice 
Horsmanden, Brissot and La Rochefoucauld, Josiah Quincy and President 
Dwight. An especially interesting group is that of the French officers 
of the Revolutionary War. To each extract Miss Kimball has prefixed 
a brief introduction, executed in a scholarly manner and pleasantly writ- 
ten, containing an account of the writer sufficient to enable one to per- 
ceive his point of view. The book is handsomely made and is well 
adapted to entertain and instruct all those who are interested in the his- 
tory of Rhode Island. 

The Third Annual Report of the State Historian of New York 
(Albany, The State), is a volume of 1158 pages, of which over seven 
hundred are occupied with muster-rolls, chiefly of the years 1760 to 
1775. The first hundred pages are devoted to letters relating to inci- 
dents in the Civil War. A more valuable portion is that (pp. 157-436) 
in which the records of the colonial government are pursued, in continu- 
ation of last year's installment, through the years 1673, 1674, and 1675. 
Here are many documents of much value for the history of New York, 
and also of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. But the extraordinary 
course has been taken of printing only those documents which are in 
English. Those which are in Dutch are mentioned by title, but are 
otherwise ignored, neither original text nor translation being given. 
Upon a rich state containing seven million people, twenty-seven colleges 
and a score of historical societies, and whose governor is an eminent his- 
torical scholar, volumes of " history " edited as these are can reflect little 
credit. 

The Backward Trail: Stories of the Indians and Tennessee Pioneers, 
by Will T. Hale (Nashville, The Cumberland Press, pp. vi, 183). 
This book is a series of sketches of early Tennessee history, ranging, in 
a way, over the period from the earliest discovery of the soil to 1 800. 
While the book concerns itself principally with the picturesque features 
of pioneer life, particularly with incidents of heroism, there is also an 
outline of the history of the time ; but this outline is apparently con- 
structed mainly to serve as a frame-work for the stories, and, such as it 
is, after a few chapters it fairly fades away. 

The stories are culled from the older writers, and even in the telling 
of them there is little that is new. This is not necessarily a bad thing. 
One would not often expect to improve upon the graceful style of Hay- 
wood, or the vigor of Ramsey. Accordingly many passages from these 
and other historians of the state are embodied in the book entire and 
distinguished by quotation-marks. There are many paragraphs, pages 
even, that but for some slight changes, might also have been so dis- 
tinguished. In some respects it is a disappointment that the author did 



Minor Notices 401 

not give at least a more original tone to the stories. The process of 
gathering, combining and condensing has sometimes involved the narra- 
tive in obscurities. It should be said, however, that occasionally in de- 
scriptive passages, where the imagination has full swing, the author strikes 
an original vein that is pleasing ; not always, for his sentences have an 
exasperating tendency to what rhetoricians call " looseness." 

In the extracts from other writers the author takes rather large liber- 
ties, in modernizing or otherwise altering the text. In Donelson's 
Journal of the voyage from the upper Holston to the present Nashville 
(the journal is given entire) there are numerous variations from the copy 
in Ramsey, which is presumably the source of Mr. Hale's copy. Is it 
not false modesty that impels Mr. Hale to alter : ' ' The wife of Ephraim 
Peyton was here delivered of a child" into : "A child was born to the 
wife of Ephraim Peyton"? Or to make Haywood say "abdomen," 
when he really wrote " belly " ? 

There are chapters on the social and religious life of the pioneers, on 
the Indians, on the Mound-Builders, and one on constitution-making. 
The most important part of this chapter is an analysis of the constitution 
of 1796, and this — with omissions — is taken from Caldwell's Constitu- 
tional History. 

The work will without doubt prove to be interesting reading, but 
had Mr. Hale confined himself to the literary features of his subject, his 
work would probably have commended itself more favorably. There is 
abundant room for work of that character. 

Edmund C. Burnett. 

White and Black under the Old Regime, by Virginia V. Clayton 
(Milwaukee, The Young Churchman Co., pp. 195). In this little book 
we have the reminiscences of the widow of General Henry D. Clayton 
of the Confederate army. Mrs. Clayton's motives in writing were, she 
tells us in her preface, to fulfill a request of her husband's, to enlighten 
Northern readers as to the real nature of Southern slavery, and to please 
the circle of personal friends to whom, rather than to the general reader, 
her book will most appeal. It is a simple straightforward account of the 
home of a Southern girl and woman, on an Alabama plantation, from 
1835 to 1886. The author describes her childhood days, and her life at 
a Southern boarding-school, and gives at some length the details of the 
domestic management of the plantation. The most interesting part of 
the volume is that describing a few months' stay in the territory of Kan- 
sas, in 1856, when General Clayton was entrusted with the dispensing 
of the funds raised by the states of Alabama and Georgia for the purpose 
of taking out emigrants to vote for the Southern party in the approaching 
election. The second half of the book describes the Civil War, and its 
effects upon the quiet plantation life. The period of reconstruction is 
treated with simple dignity and with a strong sense of justice. General 
Clayton's career after the close of the war, as circuit judge of Alabama, 
and as president of the University of Alabama, at Tuscaloosa, are briefly 



4-02 Reviews of Books 

touched upon. The book is written in an unpretending, at times almost 
school-girlish, style, and is strongly religious in tone. Slave-holding is 
justified by numerous citations from the Scriptures. The introduction, 
by Mr. F. C. Morehouse, does not add to either the interest or the value 
of the volume. 

The Clay Family. Part First : The Mother of Henry Clay. By 
Hon. Zachary F. Smith. Part Second : The Genealogy of the Clays. 
By Mrs. Mary Rogers Clay. [Filson Club Publications, No. 14.] (Louis- 
ville: The Filson Club. 1899. Pp. vi, 252.) Beginning, as far as au- 
thentic record goes, with an ancestor, Charles Clay, of Henrico County, 
Virginia, who in 1676 showed the inherent democratic instincts of the 
family by taking the side of Nathaniel Bacon, in the popular revolt against 
the government, the family of Clay has spread widely through Virginia, 
the West and South, and produced a number of really eminent men. 

The first section of the book here treated of gives all that can be 
learned, from tradition and the recollections of those who knew her, of 
the mother of Henry Clay. Mr. Smith has succeeded in presenting a 
pleasant, though (from lack of information) not a very vivid picture, of 
a woman of the courage and spirit we should expect in the mother of 
"Harry of the West." 

In the second and larger section Mrs. Mary Rogers Clay has prepared 
with great care, and with labor such as no one can appreciate who has 
not done similar work in the same section of country, an account of the 
various branches of the family down to the present day. With the ex- 
ception of her first few pages, where she falls into the common error of 
inexperienced genealogists, in believing that persons of the same surname 
must be sons or brothers, as might best suit their dates, there is nothing 
to criticize, and much to commend in her work. Unfortunately she as- 
sumes that a John Clay, who received an early grant of land, which was 
regranted to his son William, was also the father of Thomas Clay of 
Surry County, Francis of Northumberland, and Charles of Henrico, to 
whom the family treated of can be traced. There is not the slightest 
proof in either case, and the records of Northumberland County, together 
with information found in England some years ago by Mr. Waters, and 
published in the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 
show conclusively that Francis was not a brother. It should be added 
that belonging to the middle class was no evidence that the immigrant 
ancestor was not as well born as many of the planter class. Mr. Smith, 
however, the author of the sketch of Mrs. Clay, is not so free from these 
genealogical sins. He quotes, without any expression of doubt, tradi- 
tions about a descent from a Mr. John Clay, who had three sons (the 
ever-recurring "three brothers") settled in Virginia with ^10,000 
sterling apiece, which he had bestowed on them ! Of course there is no 
proof of anything like this. As has been said, the line can not be 
traced beyond Charles Clay, living in Virginia in 1676. 

Contrary to the traditions quoted, every one who is acquainted with 



Minor Notices 403 

the records and history of the counties in Virginia in which the Clays 
lived, knows that during the colonial period they did not rank with the 
gentry or ruling class. Neither in Henrico nor in Chesterfield was a 
Clay a magistrate (one of the best tests of a family's position), and 
nowhere in the records of these counties, so far as I am acquainted with 
them, is a member of the Clay family styled "gentleman." The fact 
is, that the Clay family was an example — probably the best example — of 
the prosperous yeoman farmers (using the word in an English sense to 
make the meaning clearer) who have always composed the great majority 
of the rural population of Virginia. It is strange that in the past many 
writers (especially those hostile to Virginia) have been apparently ignorant 
of the very existence of this great part of our people, and have appeared 
to think that Virginia was inhabited solely by the ' ' planting aris- 
tocracy" and the "poor whites." There was never any impassable 
line between this middle class and the aristocracy (using the word solely 
to mean the large-property-holding and the office-holding class) and 
movement from one to the other, in both directions, was constantly 
going on. 

Such mistaken views, due to a very pardonable family pride, which 
shows itself in almost every published genealogy, have deprived this 
book of an instructive lesson to the student who is interested in genealogy 
on account of the light it throws on the history of a people. It would 
have been of value to show that there was this great middle class in 
colonial Virginia, that this class was composed of such people as the 
Clays were, and that under changed and more liberal conditions such 
families could produce such men as the family of Clay has done. 

But Mr. Smith and Mrs. Clay did not write with a view to furnish- 
ing side-lights on the history of the Virginia people, but to prepare a 
memoir of the mother of Henry Clay, and a genealogy of the Clay family, 
and these purposes they have, with the exceptions noted, carried out ad- 
mirably. The book is published in the usual sumptuous fashion of the 
Filson Club, and contains twenty portraits. 



COMMUNICATION. 

To the Editor of The American Historical Review: 

My dear Sir : 

There are members of the American Historical Association 
and readers of the American Historical Review who, having subscribed 
to the Letters to Washington, have a right to be informed how far Mr. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford is justified in his criticisms on that work or 
to what extent his review is based on his own individual theories (see his 
review in Volume IV., No. 4, July 1899, page 729). In justice, there- 
fore, to such subscribers ; to students and historical writers who will use 
the Letters in connection with their own work, I hope I may be given an